SAP Basis beginner notes

The below notes were hand written by a collegue and I digitized them for public use. These are especially useful for beginner SAP Basis consultants looking for a quick cheatsheet. Keep in mind, I am not responsible for any broken production systems if you mess up. The below content is provided on as-is basis.

You will find many mistakes because the typing may have been wrong/misinformed, if possible please e-mail me with corrections and I will update them here.



Sr.NoTransaction CodeDescription
1SM50Work process specific for a particular instance (central) (local wlp overview)
2SM66For additional instance (basically all inst) (global wo/p overview)
3SM04To check wether instance is active or not (users which are not physically logged in)
4AL08For global users login (active users)
5SM12Lock management / system lock overview
6SM13Update management
7SM14Activate / Deactivate the Update prog add
8RZ10Static parameter profile param maintan
9RZ11Dynamic parameter / display profile parameter
10SU01Create a single user
11SU10Create multiple users
12PFCGCreate role & profiles
13SE16To view any table
14USR02Table of users
15SUIMSecurity purpose, User information system.
16SE11Maintaining metadata, data dictionary
17SU21All authorisation object in SAP
18SU24To check any authorisation object in nodes
19SU53You are assigned to some authorisation or not / missing authorisation
20SE93To check which prog is running in bg
21SE38To execute this program (ABAP Editor)
22SM37, SM39To know active background jobs overview
23SM36Scheduling (define) background process (job)
24SM51Kernel version (list of all application server)
25ST04Analyse database
26DB13Schedule the database backup (offline)
27EWZ5Lock all users
28SM02To send message to customer
29SCC4To (create client) check how many clients are there
30SCCLLocal client copy
31SCC3Client lock analysis
32SCC5Client deletion
33SCC9Remote client copy
34SCC7Client import
35SCC8Client export
36SMLTTo know the language in your SAP system
37SICKAfter installation run the system & check for errors
38BD54Creating logical name
39BTCtrans1Suspend the background job
40BTCtrans32Resume the background job
41SM49Maintain the external OS commands
42SM69To execute the external OS commands
43SM62To event history overview
44SM64Release of events
45RZ04Maintain the operation modes
46SM63Timeset for operation mode
47SPADSpool Administration / To define the olp devices
48SP01Output Controller / Spool request selection screen
49SP02List of spool request
50SP11Temp sequential object request screen
51SP12Temse Administration
52SM301Lock / Unlock Tcodes
53SMGWGateway work process overview
54SMMSMessage server overview
55SMICMICM Monitoring (Internet Comm Manage)
56SUPCMass profile creation
57SUGRUser group creation
58PFUDCompare user assignments
59SU56User buffer
60SU02Maintain authorisation profile
61SE54Create the authorization group
Transport Management System
62STMSTo configure TMS
63SE01Transport organizer
64SE03Transport organizer tool
65SE06Change transport system
66SE09Workbench request
67SE10Customizing request
68TSTCTo seek all transaction code
69ST01All missing authorization
70SM59RFC Administration
71SMLGCreating logon group
72SAINTApplying Addons
73SPAMSupport Package Manager
74SALETo create logical client
75STZACTimezone setting
76ST22ABAP Dump
77TZCUSTHELP(Table)For timezone
78SM21Check / display system logs
79ST17To check error log files

3 Layers:-

  1. Presentation
  2. Application
  3. Database (SQL Processes)

Work processes of ABAP

  1. Spool ---> For printing purpose
  2. Update ---> Make update in the database if any
  3. Dialog ---> It is like interface, eg (GUI) SAP logon
  4. Background ---> Run job/processes in background
  5. Enque (for lockup) ---> Lock the processes

ABAP Architecture

  • Application layer provides environment to run processes
  • Request will be one of the 5 processes
  • Message server knows how many instance are there
  • Dispatcher knows how many free instance are there

Sequence for ABAP System


  1. Database
  2. Central Services
  3. Central Instances
  • All instances can be identified by unique instance number. CS —> 01, CI — 00, (ASCS) —> ABAP, (SCS) —> Java

  • 100 instances we can have at most

  • SID (System ID ) ---> Should be 3 letters, should not start with digit & no special characters, uppercase letters only

  • /usr/sap/< sid > ---> Log files, config files, executable files (kernel), temporary files.

  • sapmnt / < sid > / (global directory)

  • Files of IP address of all additional application instances for a particular system

  • Security files, gateway files, authentical files.

  • To go from one transaction to another

    /n:- Close this open new

    /o:- Keeps the other open to

Profiles (Configuration Files)

  • Parameters needed to start an SAP system

    1. default ---> resource allocation
    2. instance ---> parameters used by specific instance
      • Central Service Profile
      • Central Instance Profile
      • Additional Instance Profile
  • Each instance has its own config so separate instance profiles

  • When we open system first default, then central service

  • If any change is default profile, sys needs to be restarted


  • Whatever functionality needs to be used in SAP ABAP system they are taken care of transaction codes
  • Required media
    • Kernel
    • GUI
    • Database

Shared Lock

  • SSFS:- Secured store of file system

  • Data file:- Stores name & password creations, to connect and fetch

  • Key file:- Stores special key associated with database credentials. Different key values for db

  • SAP Fiori:- Provides modern web based UI

  • Role:- Every transcation has an authorization object & collection of objects is called Role

Collection of such roles is called Profile containing details of authorization object for particular use

  • Profiles generated by SAP eg. SAP_ALL, SAP_CUST

App Server: Instance No: 00 SID: TR5

User -- ILPBASIS11
Password -- Abc@123
  • If user type is system of dialog then only we can login using SAP GUI SNC = Secured W/W Communication

  • Roles

    1. Single

      • Master (Parent)
      • Derived
    2. Composite

  • Which transaction needs to be assign to that Role.

  • Authorization:- Authorization object & organization level details

  • When create role a new profile will be generated 1 profile attached to 1 role. User can be attached to role or profile

  • Update:- Will update tables in database

    • U1 ---> Critical update
    • U2 ---> Less critical
  • Gateway:- Allows to communicate between application server to administration server


  • in-memory databse

  • HANA is not only a database, its a suite of application software

  • HANA Components:-

    1. Database
    2. Client
    3. Studio
    4. Lumina
    5. AFL
    6. SLT
    7. SDS
    8. SDI


  • Copying entire system
  1. Database
  2. Filesystem (img backup)
  • In SAP we have separate space for storing backup, generally thrice original space.
  • Frequency of data depends on criticality of data.
  • Path of location
  • Removal of old backup


  • HANA Studio - Gives a GUI to allow you to do things at OS level with logging to Linux server Admin, monitoring, maintain, update needed.

  • SLT (SAP’s Linear Transformation)

  • Realtime /Simultaneous replication/High Availability

Disaster Recovery (Replication)

  • Primary: The one cue are working
  • Secondary - The one with realtime replication and same geographical area
  • Tertiary - Realtime replication in different area. In case of networks, server failure, its useful.

SDS - Smart Data Streaming

Majorly used for image/video processing

  • Non-standard part of HANA
  • Works on concept of AI
  • Realtime streaming of data
  • Installed explicitly

SDI - Smart Data Integration

  • Separately stored procedures & written
  • Only arithmetic/mathematical calculations



  • Entire HANA in C++ so C++ compiles JCC files
  • Index server is heart of system, basically data storing, data persistence, handling of queries
  • statistic server is user, memory, processes info
  • Name server stores metadata, stores system server information
  • A merge brings data from persistance to index server

HANA DB version

  • Check whether db is up and running sapcontrol -nr 02 -function GetProcessList

  • DB2 and oracle dont work on instance no. functionality

  • Red, grey, yellow, green colour code for HANA processes

  • To check connection between app and DB: R3 trans-d

  • Check filesystem : df -h

  • Copy: cp

  • Make directory: mkdir

  • Change mode: chmod

  • Change owner: chown

  • extension files: .SAR

  • Extract .SAR: SAPCAR -xvf <filename>.SAR -R <destination path>


To be added later

Kernel update


  • DB/FS backup
  • version of kernel
  • Approval
  • Plan downtime
  • Space Availability check
  • SM02 (to send msg to customer)
  • Download required patch
  • backup of exe folder exe folder path - sapmnt/< sid> (only kernel files) sar files
  • lock all user [EWZ5] on SAP GUI backup cp -Rp systemname (linux x86_64/install/ ) extract root doesnt have access to extract files
  • copy downloaded file of exe location

Upgrade steps

To be added later

Create user

  • [SU01] -> Enter Lname and set password default users are ddic and sapstar user

  • [SU10] -> for creating mass user

  • i) startup profile, ii) default profile, iii) instance profile when 0 sapstar is allowed

  • After 1st installation by default 3 clients are there 000 001, 066 (SAP Clients)
    000 - Main activity, end users cant work on these 3 clients
    066 - ewa/generate report about bg
    001 - copy of 000

  • Any activity that end user wants to do are will create separate client till 1000 (999)

  • logical system is necessary for each client Switch user in HANA DB - su - adm

  • TOOO - table that stores client data snote - small correction, apply the notes support pckg - large scale correction, spam

  • Schema user is used to connect ABAP user to DB

  • RFC - Remote function call


  • SAP_ALL - all client specific data without change document
  • SAP_APPL - customizing app data without change document
  • SAP_APPX - SAP_APPL without authorization profile and roles
  • SAP_CUST - customizing data
  • SAP_CUSV - customizing and user variant
  • SAP_CUSX - customizing without authorization profile and roles
  • SAP_PROF - only authorization profile and roles
  • SAP_UCSV - customizing user master record and user variants
  • SAP_UCUS - customizing and user master record
  • SAP_UONL - user without authorization profile and roles
  • SAP_USEr - user master record and authorization profile

Prerequisites for client copy

  • send msg to user using [SM02]
  • check which users are logged on in the application server using [SM04]
  • if logged on then lock particular user [EWZ5] lock all
  • check if any background process is running using [SM37 then it needs to be suspended
  • In [SE38] run Tcode[BTCtrans1] to suspend the jobs [BTCtrans2] to resume suspended jobs

RFC administration

  • 4 types of Remote Function call (RFC)
    a) Synchronous - Both the system should be active
    b) Asynchronous - Not wait for result from target system
    c) Transactional - if system is available we’ll get result else not
    d) Queued - RFC will form a queue
    e) Background - merged transactional and queued rfc

Types of users

  1. dialog
  2. system
  3. communication
  4. reference
  5. service
  • Transport domain: DOMAIN_SID
  • Domain Controller is used to manage all SAP system in some landscape
  • Transport is used to move object frmo one SAP system to other system within same landscape DEV -> QAS -> PRD

STMS -> overview in SAP system -> virtual system -> SAP system -> create -> sid -> distription -> save

  • During STMS, tms adm user is created and changes done are stored in domain.cfg file

/usr/sap/trans/bin/domain.cfg at OS level

  • If name starts with SAP then that is standard layer otherwise that is customize layer

  • 3 Types of routes are consolidated integrated and delivery

consolidated delivery

  • /usr/sap/trans/bin which contains information of STMS and profile parameter of transport request.

  • TP_DOMAIN - transport request parameter

  • cofiles contain control info of transport request. that start with K

  • Datafiles contains actual info of transport request. That start with R

  • Path for both the file is /usr/sap/trans/cofiles (OR) /usr/sap/trans/datafiles

  • Transport request naming: Kg <5 digit no>

  • For single system there is no transport route

Types of Transport request

  • Customizing request - it contain client specific obj data. Importing this will no affect all clients only a particular client.

  • Workbench request - It contains cross client object and repository obj data. It affects all clients in the system. Changes done in development system is stored in repository.

  • Transport of copies - It contains the more table data and is used for client refresh and database refresh

  • Relocation - It is used for changing the location of one object from one sap system to another

  • Whatever you change data in development system is stored in repository

  • Transport target group if more than 3 system or multiple clients are present

  • it works on extended domain controller used to transport the object within the same client and same system

  • After config check connection SAP System -> check -> connection

  • Variant is the input given to the program

  • STMS import - find all the request queued extras -> other requests -> add

  • Schedule - You have define the program name and variant but you have not define start conditions like start date and time

  • Reloaded - All the required criteria are fulfilled for the job definition. Start condition must be define for the job in the release status

  • Ready - All required conditions are may to run the job in bg, but the job scheduler has to put job in a queuem because it is waiting for the bg workprocesses to be free

  • Active - job has started running in the bg, we cant change the status of the job when that are active

  • Finish - job is executed successfully. It means task completed without an error

  • Cancelled - there are 2 possibilities for this: a) Administrator may stop it forcefully b) issue in job

  • Start condition for BG job

  1. date/time
  2. immediate
  3. after job
  4. after event
  5. An operation mode (provide time period)

Before installation

  • check which solution of SAP system we need to install

  • check which DB we need to install

  • check database and SAP system solution for particular system

  • check RAM size, storage, CPUs and OS version

  • To install the SAP system below software is required: a) Windows/Linux server b) DB software c) BAR R/3 SAP kernel CD d) Export CDs e) FS and require directory should be created on win/linux server

R/3 installation - DB -> DB install (HANA/ASE/Oracle) - Application -> (CS/DB/CI)

S/W of solution (ECC6.0) which we are going to install

  • kernel file
  • DB (Oracle)
  • Installation upgrade for language
  • SWPM (Software package manager)

First we install CS then DB and lastly CI

Run SWPM sapinst -> Find out SAP ERP version frmo kernel dump SAP ERP 6.0 EhP6 6.0 - ECC, EhP6 - Enhancement package

SAP Business Suite = {CRM, SCM, ERP}

2 ways to install SAP

  • Central instance - DB and app on same system
  • Distributed instance - DB and app are on different system

Select CI -> Software provisioning Manager -> define parameter -> parameter mode -> typical -> it will take 00 as default installation -> Custom -> OK

  • In software provisioning manager -> maintain FQDM -> then set password -> then choose local installation (if db and s/w are in single system)

Kernel Upgrade process flow:

  • Download the files: SAPEXE/SAPEXEDB

  • Copy/Move to application server

  • Extract files

  • Stop application

  • Kill supstartsrv process

  • Take backup of kernel directory

  • Copy/Move previously extracted kernel files to the actual kernel dir

  • Correct ownership of some exe files with ./ <SID> as root.

  • Switch to user and test the database connectivity with Rstrans -d

  • Start application

  • Kernel directory: /sapmnt//exe/uc/linux86_64

  • Instance directory: /454/sap//sys/global

  • Global dir getting files frmo: /sapmnt//global

  • Keep your extracted kernel files into /sapmnt directory

SAP JAVA: Server Administration

  • hec03v0233460 - server, - FQDN, 50000 - port number

  • SAP netweaver administrator (no client concept in java system)

  • Credentials

  • To create roles go to identity management -> create user -> fill in info (name, pass, group)

  • 001 client contain some info about java system (user)

  • 7.1X and above central instance became primary application server instance and dialog instance became add app server which contains application server instance + central instance

Errors in TMS:

  • Why ASE is more stable than HANA?

  • Latest version of ASE: 16.0

  • SAP never allowed you to downgrade support pcick or DISDC files downgrade compatible

  • using SUM you can upgrade all components at any time

  • using SPAM you can upgrade only 1 component at a time

  • ABAP support pack upgrade one by one

  • Java support pack upgrade directly

  • SOLMAN -> managing solution - 7.2 (monitoring different SAP solution)

SOLMAN as a whole central console

  • What is system refresh? Copy a SAP system to another

  • Latest HANA version? 2.0.23

  • Return Codes?

  • SNOTE: small correction apply on notes

  • Patch: upgrade version of SAP system

  • Maintanence planner tool to make XML/generate file

  • Stock file contains all the updates which we need to change

Stackfile is actual data of particular sid while XML is just data

  • Addon are the additional features in already installed system.

Modern DB platform

  • SAP HANA is the MDP
  • Data will store in CRM and ERP
  • OperationalData Store - This will take required data from CRM and ERP
  • Traditional approach is used before HANA came
  • Transactional process - It works with analysis part
  • ETL (Extraction, ransformation, loading)

Summarize data

  • Data model - Summarize data will store in data model
  • Indices - it is index and start with 0
  • Aggregates - It stored periodically used data
  • Data warehouse - Collection of multiple databases and stored data for a long time
  • Data mart: specific set of data (eg. HR/Finance data)
  • Analysis: Analyze the inventory (eg. which product is used more)
  • Inmemory data are faster
  • HANA is a tool which is used as developing platform
  • In HANA no need to summarize the data that whole process is done in modern enterprise platform
  • Example: ILP
  • HANA is efficient, flexible and not time consuming
  • Data footprint is the space acquired by the data whether it is deleted or available

Policies of HANA

  • SAP HANA Support Pack stack: Released every 6 months and is a set of components

  • SAP HANA support package revision - only few components will update (3 months)

  • SAP HANA system varified revision - After applying support pack stack it will release every 3 months

  • SAP HANA maintainence revisions - released every 2 months

Components of HANA

  • Hash - Environment in which HANA is stored with all info

  • System: Identify by ID (SID). It needs OS

  • Instance: Host -> it has storage, local dir. We can access system via host

  • Data volume

  • Hypervisor

  • Root directory HANA STUDIO data will be stored in /hana/shared/sid/hdbclient, /hana/shared/sid/hdbstudio

  • /usr/sap -> local files

  • Actual data and log data will be stored respectively: hana/data/sid, hana/log/sid

  • To get log file/dir with timestamp: ls -lah

  • Save point consists of latest update of data/recent change

/ERROR := display/give the error in logfile /parametername := It will display that parameter

  • Monitor and handle wakprocess is done by web dispature

  • Virtualip list - It is gives configured virtual L10s

HANA Commands

  • To check if the database is running on the server: sapcontrol -n 02 -function GetProcessList 02 - instance no.

  • Stop HANA DB: HDB stop

  • Start HANA DB: HDB Start

  • Show a status of sapcontrol: watch

  • logs of file: cdtrace

  • To see the user are there: hdbuserstore list

  • Change the key of particular user: hdbuserstore set

  • To login into the user: hdbsql -u

  • version of HANA DB: HDB version

Apply License

  • Go to SLicense -> Install License -> Find Notepad and fill details

[SM51] - Find kernel version

RFC Connection types

Connection - Type ABAP - 3 HTTP to external server - G HTTP to ABAP system - H Internal connections - I Logical connections - L TCP/IP connections - T Connection via ABAP driver - X

RFC Connection

RFC connection -> Destination -> Administration -> Technical setting (gateway host and IP) -> Logon & security (provide user)

  • To update request type TCODE [SM13]

Administration -> Update -> server (eg. critical and less critical) -> Parameters

  • We can deactivate this TCODE

System lock management

  • To check which user is logged in the particular table enter TCODE SM12 -> enter table name -> lock that user (if you want to use that table)

  • To check logs we have ST22 and SM21 at time of error

  • How to troubleshoot when SAP goes down: /usr/sap//<>/logfiles/ (you can get error in that logfiles)

SUM - Software Upgrade manager

  • XML

  • Patches

  • SUM Files (SAR)

  • All the files must be in a single folder

  • To generate the stack files maintanence planner (download this file)

  • It requires superuser and password

Maintenance planner

  • ABAP (Provide SID)

  • JAVA

  • You need to give OS version/name, addons, SP level, net viewer version, kernel version, SP GUI version

  • Generate XML (put in download basket)

  • Download patches (put in download basket)

  • Download SUM fill (put it in installation location) (server) (all files should be in single folder)

  • Change mode of SUM file and also give sidadm permission: chmod 777 , chown :sapsys

  • Extract SAR files -> SUM Folder SAPCAR -XVF <filename>

  • Run startup file using /startup config hostagent

  • Run the SUM

  • it will provide link for ABAP SUM upgrade.

  • Select link and run it in browser

  • You need to give sidadm and password

  • it will ask you for the XML file (File location:install/../stack.xml)

  • it will lock your system in execute step

  • If you want to unlock the system at the time of execution phase: a) go to SUM folder with cd SUM/ABAP/exe b) run tp unlocksys <SAPSID>pf = ..\var\DEFAULT.TPP c) run tp unlock_e4 <SAPSID>pf = ..\var\DEFAULT.TPP

  • If you want to upgrade single component use SPAM

Prerequisites for support package implementation:

  • Support package should be aplpied on client 000
  • The user to be used for support package implemntation must have authorization of DDIC and SAP
  • Call the transaction spam and see if any previous support package implementation is incomplete or not
  • You can proceed ahead unless previous support package implementation is successful
  • Ensure that there is enough space in transport directory (/usr/sap/trans)
  • Take a backup before starting upgrade (DB and FS)
  • Lock users using (EWZ5)
  • Suspend bg jobs -> SE38 -> BTCTrans1
  • Valid license should be mandatory

Steps to upgrade support package

  • Download the required support packages from SMP (Service Marketplace)
  • Load the support packages (SPAM) a) from app server (have to store it in trans directory) >10mb b) from frontend (you can store it in any location required) <10mb compress support pkgs which are in the trans directory using SAPCAR -XVF. .ATT4 .PAT files are there .ATT4 = Attrbiute file .PAT = Patch file

c) It will put your files in /usr/sap/trans/EPS/in folder

  • Patch version should be latest
  • We can revert snotes but we can’t revert support pack and addons

SAP Note -> reset (reset snotes)

  • System -> status (to check support packs)

Apply support package:

SPAM -> Display -> select package and click on queue -> go back -> check in queue and click on truck icon (apply)

  • It will ask for bg and immediate

Target Audience

  • SAP Technology Consultant
  • Technical Business Solution Manager
  • IT Governance experts
  • Business and Project Team leaders

System change options

SE06 -> Change system option -> Global Setting (modifiable/non-modifiable)

Modifiable - In the standard SAP s/w component particular component can be modified

Restricted Modifiable - Only can create object. You cant modify directly, you can create an object which will not reflect the original component

Not modifiable - Enhanceable only -> You cant change the object, however the object can be enhanced

Not modifiable; not enhanceable - -> You cant change the object, you cant enhance either

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